In 1798, the United States terminated a constitutional treaty for the first time. On the eve of possible hostilities with France, Congress and President Adams passed a law stipulating that four American treaties with France “will no longer be considered mandatory by law for the government or citizens of the United States.” 201 Thomas Jefferson called the episode a support for the idea that only a “legislative act” can terminate a contract.202 But since then, commentators considered the 1798 statute to be a historical anomaly because it is the only case in which Congress claimed to terminate a contract directly by law without relying on the president to grant termination to the foreign government.203 Because the 1798 statute was part of a series of congressional measures authorizing limited hostilities against the French Republic, some see the statute as an exercise of the war powers of Congress and not as a precedent for a permanent power of Congress to end the treaties.204 A treaty is an international agreement concluded in writing and governed by international law between two or more sovereign states. , whether they are used in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments. Treaties have many names: conventions, agreements, pacts, pacts, charters and statutes, among others. The choice of name has no legal value. Contracts can generally be categorized into one of two main categories: bilateral (between two countries) and multilateral (between three or more countries). Despite the complexity of the doctrine of internal self-enforcement, treaties and other international agreements that operate in two international and domestic legal contexts.126 In the international context, international agreements are traditionally binding pacts between sovereign nations and create rights and duties which, in accordance with international law, are rights and obligations which, under international law, are , owed to each other.127 However, international law generally allows each nation to decide how it should implement its contractual obligations in its own national legal system128 The doctrine of self-enforcement concerns the determination of treaties. 129 When a treaty is ratified or an executive agreement is reached, the United States acquires international bonds regardless of self-enforcement, and may be late in its commitment, unless the implementing laws have come into force.130 Belmont and Pink have been strengthened in the American Ins.